Artificial Intelligence has taken over the entire world. Traditionally used for making binary decisions, AI has made some exceptional progress in recent years. Latest advances in AI systems are outperforming humans and are moving towards replicating human intelligence.
In the last few years, Neuroscience has made a huge impact on AI as the AI networks are the replica of neural networks found in the brain. Similarly, Neuroscience has also benefited from AI.
In this article we will explore how Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience inspire and advance each other. But before going deep let us first understand what AI and Neuroscience are?
What is Neuroscience?
To simply put, if Neuroscience was not there, scientists would have never known how the human brain works. Neuroscience is the study of the function of the brain and nervous system. Neuroscientists use anatomy, biology, human behaviour, etc to map out the functionality of the brain.
Furthermore, some concepts are used in identifying the cause of Neurological disorders and diagnosing and treating several brain diseases.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial intelligence are machines that mimic the human brain to perform certain tasks and can learn from the experience and information they collect and improve themselves.
AI allows computers to perform specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns.
How Neuroscience Encourages Artificial Intelligence?
Neuroscience has been playing a very important role since the inception of Artificial Intelligence. It has always been the force behind building AI similar to humans. Neuroscience encourages in designing and building Artificial Intelligence systems in two ways-
- Systems Emulating Human Intelligence
Some of the recent Artificial Intelligence advancements are becoming the talk of the town with these extremely exciting features like-
- Object recognition like Self-driving cars of Tesla
- Video games
- Detecting deadly diseases better than doctors.
Though they excel in their specialized fields, these machines are still way behind Artificial Human Intelligence. For any machine to think like a human, it would require them to perform certain actions like understanding the problem, collecting knowledge and learning from it, and making decisions like humans.
- Designing neural networks that can imitate human brain structure
Human brain has several biological Neurons, similarly the Neurons in neural networks are inspired from the human brain. We know that biological Neurons are the cells that, when activated, generate spikes to send signals to other Neurons.
Just like the human brain, the neural network of Artificial Intelligence comprises Neurons that are interconnected. They receive inputs and get activated and then send information to other Neurons.
A neural network learns when we feed it with a large amount of data and each connection is linked with a weight. During training, these weights are adjusted accordingly so that the connection between the Neurons can be strengthened and weakened.
Now that we have understood how Neuroscience has influenced Artificial Intelligence, let us move forward and explore how AI is giving back with advancing Neuroscience.
How Artificial Intelligence is advancing Neuroscience?
Artificial Intelligence helps in understanding the human brain and fuel the development of Neuroscience.
- Understanding how brain works
The world is dealing with several Neurological diseases that require better understanding. AI experts can help Neuroscientists to make better models to simulate the human brain. Neural networks act as virtual brains that can produce patterns that look similar to the patterns from the brain and help Neuroscientists to test and observe the results.
However, Neural networks are just a replica but the actual human brain is different since it uses chemical activity.
- AI supports Neuroscience discoveries
The signals from the brain are more complex than you think. With advancements in Artificial Intelligence, scientists are cracking down the techniques of how Neurons in the brain work together.
Magnetic resonance measures activity in the brain by detecting changes in the blood flow. Artificial Intelligence helps in analyzing data and unleashing the patterns in the activity of the brain.
Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence driving each other
We know that the human brain is what has driven Artificial Intelligence and AI researchers use ideas from Neuroscience to design new algorithms. Artificial neural networks are indeed beneficial for studying the brain. The ability to drive each other in moving forward is amazing.
At the core, both the technologies are solving the same problem but with different approaches. In AI scientists are focusing more on learning using machine language while in Neuroscience the focus is on the functioning of the brain. AI is being considered as an invaluable tool in Neuroscience and is getting adopted into methods that manage the sense of brain activity.
AI also abstracts concepts of what our brain does, and has algorithms that provide brain like outputs and test ideas in Neuroscience.
What Future Holds?
The industry that needs AI the most is the medical industry that needs discovery and advancements to treat incurable diseases. Wearable healthcare equipment has made customized healthcare more accessible and Artificial Intelligence can rapidly accelerate its growth.
Artificial Intelligence in the future can provide partial insights to Neuroscientists to let them confirm through different experiments. The universal fact is AI has made its impact on Neuroscience and is continuing to support further growth.
The Bottom Line
As stated above, Both Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience share the same goal of understanding the human brain. Their combination is thus essential. Scientists are taking advancements from Neuroscience to build better models of the brain and Neuroscientists are testing them against the real brain activity, and maybe they can create a real human intelligence in the future.
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